Satellite television is part of the lives of millions of television viewers worldwide and its influence is set to increase significantly with the launch of digital satellite television services. This comprehensive reference book, written by the author of the highly successful 'Digital Television', provides a technical overview of both analogue and digital satellite TV.
Written concisely and thoroughly, it covers all aspects of satellite TV necessary to understand its operation and installation. It also covers the evolution of satellite television, and contains a detailed glossary of technical terms. This book will prove invaluable to those working in the telecommunications field, both professionals and undergraduates alike.
This allows for transmission of UHF signals along the same span of coaxial wire at the same time. The satellite receiver or set-top box demodulates and converts the signals to the desired form outputs for television, audio, data, etc. RG-6 , RG , etc. A practical problem relating to home satellite reception is that an LNB can basically only handle a single receiver. A common solution for consumers wanting to access multiple satellites is to deploy a single dish with a single LNB and to rotate the dish using an electric motor.
The axis of rotation has to be set up in the north-south direction and, depending on the geographical location of the dish, have a specific vertical tilt. Set up properly the motorized dish when turned will sweep across all possible positions for satellites lined up along the geostationary orbit directly above the equator. The disk will then be capable of receiving any geostationary satellite that is visible at the specific location, i. The DiSEqC protocol has been extended to encompass commands for steering dish rotors. There are five major components in a satellite system: Thus satellite dishes can be aimed permanently at that point, and don't need a tracking system to turn to follow a moving satellite.
The downlinked satellite signal, weaker after traveling the great distance see inverse-square law , is collected by using a rooftop parabolic receiving dish " satellite dish " , which reflects the weak signal to the dish's focal point. The reason for using the LNB to do the frequency translation at the dish is so that the signal can be carried into the residence using cheap coaxial cable.
To transport the signal into the house at its original K u band microwave frequency would require an expensive waveguide , a metal pipe to carry the radio waves. An LNB can only handle a single receiver. The set-top box selects the channel desired by the user by filtering that channel from the multiple channels received from the satellite, converts the signal to a lower intermediate frequency , decrypts the encrypted signal, demodulates the radio signal and sends the resulting video signal to the television through a cable.
If the customer fails to pay his monthly bill the box is "deactivated" by a signal from the company, and the system will not work until the company reactivates it. Some receivers are capable of decrypting the received signal itself.
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The analog signal is frequency modulated and is converted from an FM signal to what is referred to as baseband. This baseband comprises the video signal and the audio subcarrier s. The audio subcarrier is further demodulated to provide a raw audio signal. Later signals were digitized television signal or multiplex of signals, typically QPSK.
Many conditional access systems have been compromised. An event called sun outage occurs when the sun lines up directly behind the satellite in the field of view of the receiving satellite dish. During this period, the sun is within the main lobe of the dish's reception pattern, so the strong microwave noise emitted by the sun on the same frequencies used by the satellite's transponders drowns out reception. Direct-To-Home DTHTV can either refer to the communications satellites themselves that deliver service or the actual television service.
Programming for satellite television channels comes from multiple sources and may include live studio feeds.
The signal is then sent to the uplink  where it is transmitted to the satellite. With some broadcast centers, the studios, administration and up-link are all part of the same campus. Most systems use the DVB-S standard for transmission.
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While the underlying reception technology is similar, the pay television technology is proprietary, often consisting of a conditional-access module and smart card. This measure assures satellite television providers that only authorized, paying subscribers have access to pay television content but at the same time can allow free-to-air channels to be viewed even by the people with standard equipment available in the market. Some countries operate satellite television services which can be received for free, without paying a subscription fee.
This is called free-to-air satellite television. Germany is likely the leader in free-to-air with approximately digital channels including 83 HDTV channels and various regional channels broadcast from the Astra All German analogue satellite broadcasts ceased on 30 April The United Kingdom has approximately digital channels including the regional variations of BBC channels, ITV channels, Channel 4 and Channel 5 that are broadcast without encryption from the Astra India 's national broadcaster, Doordarshan , promotes a free-to-air DBS package as " DD Free Dish ", which is provided as in-fill for the country's terrestrial transmission network.
It is broadcast from GSAT at The term Television receive-only , or TVRO, arose during the early days of satellite television reception to differentiate it from commercial satellite television uplink and downlink operations transmit and receive. This was the primary method of satellite television transmissions before the satellite television industry shifted, with the launch of higher powered DBS satellites in the early s which transmitted their signals on the K u band frequencies. TVRO systems were designed to receive analog and digital satellite feeds of both television or audio from both C-band and K u -band transponders on FSS -type satellites.
TVRO systems tend to use larger rather than smaller satellite dish antennas, since it is more likely that the owner of a TVRO system would have a C-band-only setup rather than a K u band-only setup.
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The narrow beam width of a normal parabolic satellite antenna means it can only receive signals from a single satellite at a time. In British science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke proposed a worldwide communications system which would function by means of three satellites equally spaced apart in earth orbit.
The first public satellite television signals from Europe to North America were relayed via the Telstar satellite over the Atlantic ocean on 23 July , although a test broadcast had taken place almost two weeks earlier on 11 July. The world's first commercial communications satellite, called Intelsat I and nicknamed "Early Bird", was launched into geosynchronous orbit on April 6, The transmissions were focused on the Indian subcontinent but experimenters were able to receive the signal in Western Europe using home constructed equipment that drew on UHF television design techniques already in use.
The first in a series of Soviet geostationary satellites to carry direct-to-home television, Ekran 1, was launched on 26 October The satellite television industry developed first in the US from the cable television industry as communication satellites were being used to distribute television programming to remote cable television headends.
Satellite Television: Analogue and Digital Reception Techniques - Herve Benoit - Google Книги
Taylor Howard of San Andreas , California became the first person to receive C-band satellite signals with his home-built system in In the US, PBS , a non-profit public broadcasting service, began to distribute its television programming by satellite in In , Soviet engineers developed the Moskva or Moscow system of broadcasting and delivering of TV signals via satellites. Techniques of Analogue and Digital Television. Satellite television is part of the lives of millions of television viewers worldwide, and its influence is set to increase significantly with the launch of digital satellite television services.
Digital satellite television will increase its penetration into the market, with analogue services continuing to run in tandem for some time.
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