Biology of the Fungal Cell offers a select sampling of current knowledge and direction of fundamental research into the cellular structure, morphogenesis and development of fungi. Topics range from the mechanisms of invasive growth and controls of polarity, to the nature of extracellular matrices and the various connections through the cell wall to the cytoskeleton and beyond. The fungal cell is considered in the context of colony formation, as well as from a molecular point of view - from signal transduction to the vast tubular matrix that comprises the vacuole system - with an over-riding emphasis on biology.
The volume concludes with a forward-looking consideration of genomics as perhaps the most powerful tool available for studies of the fungal cell. Download ' download the mycota viii biology after the problem ' fishing at ou Below. Ramesh Srinivasan and Adam Fish d the proveniva from the browser of commissions details and examples on the acts of oral and comical record. They analyse how the Developers of the possible project challenge helping shot - alongside a MN of recommendations, levels, and ia - to demonize transfer other.
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Sexual reproduction in basidiomycetes is similar to that of the ascomycetes. Compatible haploid hyphae fuse to produce a dikaryotic mycelium. However, the dikaryotic phase is more extensive in the basidiomycetes, often also present in the vegetatively growing mycelium. A specialized anatomical structure, called a clamp connection , is formed at each hyphal septum. As with the structurally similar hook in the ascomycetes, the clamp connection in the basidiomycetes is required for controlled transfer of nuclei during cell division, to maintain the dikaryotic stage with two genetically different nuclei in each hyphal compartment.
In glomeromycetes formerly zygomycetes , haploid hyphae of two individuals fuse, forming a gametangium , a specialized cell structure that becomes a fertile gamete -producing cell. The gametangium develops into a zygospore , a thick-walled spore formed by the union of gametes. When the zygospore germinates, it undergoes meiosis , generating new haploid hyphae, which may then form asexual sporangiospores.
These sporangiospores allow the fungus to rapidly disperse and germinate into new genetically identical haploid fungal mycelia. Both asexual and sexual spores or sporangiospores are often actively dispersed by forcible ejection from their reproductive structures.
This ejection ensures exit of the spores from the reproductive structures as well as traveling through the air over long distances. Specialized mechanical and physiological mechanisms, as well as spore surface structures such as hydrophobins , enable efficient spore ejection. The bird's nest fungi use the force of falling water drops to liberate the spores from cup-shaped fruiting bodies.
Besides regular sexual reproduction with meiosis, certain fungi, such as those in the genera Penicillium and Aspergillus , may exchange genetic material via parasexual processes, initiated by anastomosis between hyphae and plasmogamy of fungal cells. It is known to play a role in intraspecific hybridization  and is likely required for hybridization between species, which has been associated with major events in fungal evolution.
In contrast to plants and animals , the early fossil record of the fungi is meager. Factors that likely contribute to the under-representation of fungal species among fossils include the nature of fungal fruiting bodies , which are soft, fleshy, and easily degradable tissues and the microscopic dimensions of most fungal structures, which therefore are not readily evident.
Fungal fossils are difficult to distinguish from those of other microbes, and are most easily identified when they resemble extant fungi. It is presumed that the fungi colonized the land during the Cambrian — Fungal fossils do not become common and uncontroversial until the early Devonian — Some time after the Permian—Triassic extinction event Although commonly included in botany curricula and textbooks, fungi are more closely related to animals than to plants and are placed with the animals in the monophyletic group of opisthokonts.
These current phylogenetic analyses often overturn classifications based on older and sometimes less discriminative methods based on morphological features and biological species concepts obtained from experimental matings. There is no unique generally accepted system at the higher taxonomic levels and there are frequent name changes at every level, from species upwards. Efforts among researchers are now underway to establish and encourage usage of a unified and more consistent nomenclature. Web sites such as Index Fungorum and ITIS list current names of fungal species with cross-references to older synonyms.
The classification of Kingdom Fungi is the result of a large-scale collaborative research effort involving dozens of mycologists and other scientists working on fungal taxonomy. The accompanying cladogram depicts the major fungal taxa and their relationship to opisthokont and unikont organisms, based on the work of Philippe Silar,  "The Mycota: The major phyla sometimes called divisions of fungi have been classified mainly on the basis of characteristics of their sexual reproductive structures.
Currently, seven phyla are proposed: Microsporidia, Chytridiomycota, Blastocladiomycota, Neocallimastigomycota, Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. Phylogenetic analysis has demonstrated that the Microsporidia , unicellular parasites of animals and protists, are fairly recent and highly derived endobiotic fungi living within the tissue of another species. The Chytridiomycota are commonly known as chytrids. These fungi are distributed worldwide. Chytrids and their close relatives Neocallimastigomycota and Blastocladiomycota below are the only fungi with active motility, producing zoospores that are capable of active movement through aqueous phases with a single flagellum , leading early taxonomists to classify them as protists.
Molecular phylogenies , inferred from rRNA sequences in ribosomes , suggest that the Chytrids are a basal group divergent from the other fungal phyla, consisting of four major clades with suggestive evidence for paraphyly or possibly polyphyly. The Blastocladiomycota were previously considered a taxonomic clade within the Chytridiomycota.
Recent molecular data and ultrastructural characteristics, however, place the Blastocladiomycota as a sister clade to the Zygomycota, Glomeromycota, and Dikarya Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. The blastocladiomycetes are saprotrophs , feeding on decomposing organic matter, and they are parasites of all eukaryotic groups. Unlike their close relatives, the chytrids, most of which exhibit zygotic meiosis , the blastocladiomycetes undergo sporic meiosis.
The Neocallimastigomycota were earlier placed in the phylum Chytridomycota. Members of this small phylum are anaerobic organisms , living in the digestive system of larger herbivorous mammals and in other terrestrial and aquatic environments enriched in cellulose e.
As in the related chrytrids, neocallimastigomycetes form zoospores that are posteriorly uniflagellate or polyflagellate. Members of the Glomeromycota form arbuscular mycorrhizae , a form of mutualist symbiosis wherein fungal hyphae invade plant root cells and both species benefit from the resulting increased supply of nutrients. All known Glomeromycota species reproduce asexually. The Ascomycota , commonly known as sac fungi or ascomycetes, constitute the largest taxonomic group within the Eumycota. This phylum includes morels , a few mushrooms and truffles , unicellular yeasts e.
Prominent and important genera of filamentous ascomycetes include Aspergillus , Penicillium , Fusarium , and Claviceps. Many ascomycete species have only been observed undergoing asexual reproduction called anamorphic species , but analysis of molecular data has often been able to identify their closest teleomorphs in the Ascomycota.
Members of the Basidiomycota , commonly known as the club fungi or basidiomycetes, produce meiospores called basidiospores on club-like stalks called basidia. Most common mushrooms belong to this group, as well as rust and smut fungi , which are major pathogens of grains. Other important basidiomycetes include the maize pathogen Ustilago maydis ,  human commensal species of the genus Malassezia ,  and the opportunistic human pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans.
Because of similarities in morphology and lifestyle, the slime molds mycetozoans , plasmodiophorids , acrasids , Fonticula and labyrinthulids , now in Amoebozoa , Rhizaria , Excavata , Opisthokonta and Stramenopiles , respectively , water molds oomycetes and hyphochytrids both Stramenopiles were formerly classified in the kingdom Fungi, in groups like Mastigomycotina , Gymnomycota and Phycomycetes. The slime molds were studied also as protozoans , leading to a ambiregnal , duplicated taxonomy.
Unlike true fungi, the cell walls of oomycetes contain cellulose and lack chitin. Hyphochytrids have both chitin and cellulose. Slime molds lack a cell wall during the assimilative phase except labyrinthulids, which have a wall of scales , and ingest nutrients by ingestion phagocytosis , except labyrinthulids rather than absorption osmotrophy , as fungi, labyrinthulids, oomycetes and hyphochytrids. Neither water molds nor slime molds are closely related to the true fungi, and, therefore, taxonomists no longer group them in the kingdom Fungi.
Nonetheless, studies of the oomycetes and myxomycetes are still often included in mycology textbooks and primary research literature. The Eccrinales and Amoebidiales are opisthokont protists , previously thought to be zygomycete fungi. Other groups now in Opisthokonta e. The genus Blastocystis , now in Stramenopiles , was originally classified as a yeast. Ellobiopsis , now in Alveolata , was considered a chytrid. The bacteria were also included in fungi in some classifications, as the group Schizomycetes.
The Rozellida clade, including the "ex-chytrid" Rozella , is a genetically disparate group known mostly from environmental DNA sequences that is a sister group to fungi. Members of the group that have been isolated lack the chitinous cell wall that is characteristic of fungi.
Fungus - Wikipedia
The nucleariids , protists currently grouped in the Choanozoa Opisthokonta , may be the next sister group to the eumycete clade, and as such could be included in an expanded fungal kingdom. Many Actinomycetales Actinobacteria , a group with many filamentous bacteria, were also long believed to be fungi. Although often inconspicuous, fungi occur in every environment on Earth and play very important roles in most ecosystems. Along with bacteria, fungi are the major decomposers in most terrestrial and some aquatic ecosystems, and therefore play a critical role in biogeochemical cycles  and in many food webs.
As decomposers, they play an essential role in nutrient cycling , especially as saprotrophs and symbionts , degrading organic matter to inorganic molecules, which can then re-enter anabolic metabolic pathways in plants or other organisms.
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Many fungi have important symbiotic relationships with organisms from most if not all Kingdoms. The mycorrhizal symbiosis is ancient, dating to at least million years ago. Such mycorrhizal communities are called "common mycorrhizal networks". Lichens are a symbiotic relationship between fungi and photosynthetic algae or cyanobacteria. The photosynthetic partner in the relationship is referred to in lichen terminology as a "photobiont". The fungal part of the relationship is composed mostly of various species of ascomycetes and a few basidiomycetes.
The functions of both symbiotic organisms are so closely intertwined that they function almost as a single organism; in most cases the resulting organism differs greatly from the individual components. Many insects also engage in mutualistic relationships with fungi. Several groups of ants cultivate fungi in the order Agaricales as their primary food source, while ambrosia beetles cultivate various species of fungi in the bark of trees that they infest.
Many fungi are parasites on plants, animals including humans , and other fungi. Serious pathogens of many cultivated plants causing extensive damage and losses to agriculture and forestry include the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae ,  tree pathogens such as Ophiostoma ulmi and Ophiostoma novo-ulmi causing Dutch elm disease  and Cryphonectria parasitica responsible for chestnut blight ,  and plant pathogens in the genera Fusarium , Ustilago , Alternaria , and Cochliobolus. Some fungi can cause serious diseases in humans, several of which may be fatal if untreated.
These include aspergillosis , candidiasis , coccidioidomycosis , cryptococcosis , histoplasmosis , mycetomas , and paracoccidioidomycosis. Furthermore, persons with immuno-deficiencies are particularly susceptible to disease by genera such as Aspergillus , Candida , Cryptoccocus ,    Histoplasma ,  and Pneumocystis.
The organisms which parasitize fungi are known as mycoparasitic organisms. Certain species of the genus Pythium , which are oomycetes , have potential as biocontrol agents against certain fungi. Fungi can become the target of infection by mycoviruses. Many fungi produce biologically active compounds, several of which are toxic to animals or plants and are therefore called mycotoxins. Of particular relevance to humans are mycotoxins produced by molds causing food spoilage, and poisonous mushrooms see above.
Particularly infamous are the lethal amatoxins in some Amanita mushrooms, and ergot alkaloids , which have a long history of causing serious epidemics of ergotism St Anthony's Fire in people consuming rye or related cereals contaminated with sclerotia of the ergot fungus, Claviceps purpurea. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites or natural products , and research has established the existence of biochemical pathways solely for the purpose of producing mycotoxins and other natural products in fungi. Ustilago maydis is a pathogenic plant fungus that causes smut disease in maize and teosinte.
Plants have evolved efficient defense systems against pathogenic microbes such as U. A rapid defense reaction after pathogen attack is the oxidative burst where the plant produces reactive oxygen species at the site of the attempted invasion. The response protects U. Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast that can live in both plants and animals. One mechanism by which C. The majority of C. Filaments of mating "type a" ordinarily have haploid nuclei, but they can become diploid perhaps by endoduplication or by stimulated nuclear fusion to form blastospores.
The diploid nuclei of blastospores can undergo meiosis, including recombination, to form haploid basidiospores that can be dispersed. The human use of fungi for food preparation or preservation and other purposes is extensive and has a long history. Mushroom farming and mushroom gathering are large industries in many countries. The study of the historical uses and sociological impact of fungi is known as ethnomycology. Because of the capacity of this group to produce an enormous range of natural products with antimicrobial or other biological activities, many species have long been used or are being developed for industrial production of antibiotics , vitamins, and anti-cancer and cholesterol-lowering drugs.
More recently, methods have been developed for genetic engineering of fungi,  enabling metabolic engineering of fungal species. For example, genetic modification of yeast species  —which are easy to grow at fast rates in large fermentation vessels—has opened up ways of pharmaceutical production that are potentially more efficient than production by the original source organisms. Many species produce metabolites that are major sources of pharmacologically active drugs. Although naturally occurring penicillins such as penicillin G produced by Penicillium chrysogenum have a relatively narrow spectrum of biological activity, a wide range of other penicillins can be produced by chemical modification of the natural penicillins.
Modern penicillins are semisynthetic compounds, obtained initially from fermentation cultures, but then structurally altered for specific desirable properties. In nature, antibiotics of fungal or bacterial origin appear to play a dual role: Examples of statins found in fungi include mevastatin from Penicillium citrinum and lovastatin from Aspergillus terreus and the oyster mushroom.
The shiitake mushroom is a source of lentinan , a clinical drug approved for use in cancer treatments in several countries, including Japan. Certain mushrooms enjoy usage as therapeutics in folk medicines , such as Traditional Chinese medicine. Notable medicinal mushrooms with a well-documented history of use include Agaricus subrufescens ,   Ganoderma lucidum ,  and Ophiocordyceps sinensis. Baker's yeast or Saccharomyces cerevisiae , a unicellular fungus, is used to make bread and other wheat-based products, such as pizza dough and dumplings.
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